Standards
that all students are expected to achieve in the course of their
studies are unmarked.
Standards that all students should have the opportunity to learn
are marked with an asterisk (*).
Motion
and Forces
1.
Newton
's
laws predict the motion of most objects. As a basis for
understanding this concept:
a.
Students know how to solve problems that involve constant
speed and average speed.
b.
Students know that when forces are balanced, no
acceleration occurs; thus an object continues to move at a
constant speed or stays at rest (
Newton
's
first law).
c.
Students know how to apply the law F=ma to solve
onedimensional motion problems that involve constant forces (
Newton
's
second law).
d.
Students know that when one object exerts a force on a
second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal
magnitude and in the opposite direction (
Newton
's
third law).
e.
Students know the relationship between the universal law
of gravitation and the effect of gravity on an object at the
surface of Earth.
f.
Students know applying a force to an object perpendicular
to the direction of its motion causes the object to change
direction but not speed (e.g., Earth's gravitational force causes
a satellite in a circular orbit to change direction but not
speed).
g.
Students know circular motion requires the application of
a constant force directed toward the center of the circle.
h.
* Students know
Newton
's laws are not exact but provide very
good approximations unless an object is moving close to the speed
of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.
i.
* Students know
how to solve twodimensional trajectory problems.
j.
* Students know
how to resolve twodimensional vectors into their components and
calculate the magnitude and direction of a vector from its
components.
k.
* Students know
how to solve twodimensional problems involving balanced forces (statics).
l.
* Students know
how to solve problems in circular motion by using the formula for
centripetal acceleration in the following form: a=v2/r.
m.
* Students know
how to solve problems involving the forces between two electric
charges at a distance (Coulomb's law) or the forces between two
masses at a distance (universal gravitation).
Conservation
of Energy and Momentum
2.
The laws of conservation of energy and momentum provide a
way to predict and describe the movement of objects. As a basis
for understanding this concept:
a.
Students know how to calculate kinetic energy by using the
formula E=(1/2)mv2
.
b.
Students know how to calculate changes in gravitational
potential energy near Earth by using the formula (change in
potential energy) =mgh (h is the change in the elevation).
c.
Students know how to solve problems involving conservation
of energy in simple systems, such as falling objects.
d.
Students know how to calculate momentum as the product mv.
e.
Students know momentum is a separately conserved quantity
different from energy.
f.
Students know an unbalanced force on an object produces a
change in its momentum.
g.
Students know how to solve problems involving elastic and
inelastic collisions in one dimension by using the principles of
conservation of momentum and energy.
h.
* Students know
how to solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple
systems with various sources of potential energy, such as
capacitors and springs.
Heat
and Thermodynamics
3.
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, although in many
processes energy is transferred to the environment as heat. As a
basis for understanding this concept:
a.
Students know heat flow and work are two forms of energy
transfer between systems.
b.
Students know that the work done by a heat engine that is
working in a cycle is the difference between the heat flow into
the engine at high temperature and the heat flow out at a lower
temperature (first law of thermodynamics) and that this is an
example of the law of conservation of energy.
c.
Students know the internal energy of an object includes
the energy of random motion of the object's atoms and molecules,
often referred to as thermal energy. The greater the temperature
of the object, the greater the energy of motion of the atoms and
molecules that make up the object.
d.
Students know that most processes tend to decrease the
order of a system over time and that energy levels are eventually
distributed uniformly.
e.
Students know that entropy is a quantity that measures the
order or disorder of a system and that this quantity is larger for
a more disordered system.
f.
* Students know
the statement "Entropy tends to increase" is a law of
statistical probability that governs all closed systems (second
law of thermodynamics).
g.
* Students know
how to solve problems involving heat flow, work, and efficiency in
a heat engine and know that all real engines lose some heat to
their surroundings.
Waves
4.
Waves have characteristic properties that do not depend
on the type of wave. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a.
Students know waves carry energy from one place to
another.
b.
Students know how to identify transverse and longitudinal
waves in mechanical media, such as springs and ropes, and on the
earth (seismic waves).
c.
Students know how to solve problems involving wavelength,
frequency, and wave speed.
d.
Students know sound is a longitudinal wave whose speed
depends on the properties of the medium in which it propagates.
e.
Students know radio waves, light, and Xrays are different
wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves whose
speed in a vacuum is approximately 3×108
m/s (186,000 miles/second).
f.
Students know how to identify the characteristic
properties of waves: interference (beats), diffraction,
refraction, Doppler effect, and polarization.
Electric
and Magnetic Phenomena
5.
Electric and magnetic phenomena are related and have many
practical applications. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a.
Students know how to predict the voltage or current in
simple direct current (DC) electric circuits constructed from
batteries, wires, resistors, and capacitors.
b.
Students know how to solve problems involving Ohm's law.
c.
Students know any resistive element in a DC circuit
dissipates energy, which heats the resistor. Students can
calculate the power (rate of energy dissipation) in any resistive
circuit element by using the formula Power = IR (potential
difference) × I (current) = I2R.
d.
Students know the properties of transistors and the role
of transistors in electric circuits.
e.
Students know charged particles are sources of electric
fields and are subject to the forces of the electric fields from
other charges.
f.
Students know magnetic materials and electric currents
(moving electric charges) are sources of magnetic fields and are
subject to forces arising from the magnetic fields of other
sources.
g.
Students know how to determine the direction of a magnetic
field produced by a current flowing in a straight wire or in a
coil.
h.
Students know changing magnetic fields produce electric
fields, thereby inducing currents in nearby conductors.
i.
Students know plasmas, the fourth state of matter, contain
ions or free electrons or both and conduct electricity.
j.
* Students know electric and magnetic fields contain energy
and act as vector force fields.
k.
* Students know the force on a charged particle in an
electric field is qE, where E is the electric field at the
position of the particle and q is the charge of the
particle.
l.
* Students know how to calculate the electric field
resulting from a point charge.
m.
* Students know static electric fields have as their source
some arrangement of electric charges.
n.
* Students know the magnitude of the force on a moving
particle (with charge q) in a magnetic field is qvB sin(a), where
a is the angle between v and B (v and B are the magnitudes of
vectors v and B, respectively), and students use the righthand
rule to find the direction of this force.
o.
* Students know how to apply the concepts of electrical and
gravitational potential energy to solve problems involving
conservation of energy.
