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Chapter 15



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

An adaptation is a characteristic that can be physical or
a.
behavioral.
b.
geographical.
c.
acquired.
d.
that does not affect fitness.
 

2. 

When a farmer breeds only his or her best livestock, the process involved is
a.
natural selection.
b.
artificial selection.
c.
artificial variation.
d.
survival of the fittest.
 
 
quiz_chapter_15_files/i0040000.jpg

Figure 15-1
 

3. 

The scientist who attempted to explain changes to Earth such as those shown in Figure 15-1 was
a.
Malthus.
b.
Hutton.
c.
Darwin.
d.
Lamarck.
 

4. 

The number and location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those in living vertebrates. Most evolutionary biologists would probably explain this on the basis of
a.
the needs of the organism.
b.
a common ancestor.
c.
a chance occurrence.
d.
the inheritance of acquired traits.
 

5. 

The wings of experimental fruit flies were clipped short each generation for fifty generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal-length wings. This observation would tend to disprove the theory of evolution based on
a.
inheritance of mutations.
b.
inheritance of acquired characteristics.
c.
natural selection.
d.
survival of the fittest.
 

6. 

The observation by Darwin that finches of different species on the Galápagos Islands have many similar physical characteristics supports the conclusion that these finches
a.
have the ability to interbreed.
b.
acquired traits through use and disuse.
c.
all eat the same type of food.
d.
originated from a common ancestor.
 

7. 

Considering the adaptations he observed in finches and tortoises in the Galápagos, Darwin wondered
a.
if animals living on different islands had once been members of the same species.
b.
if finches and tortoises had originated from the same ancestral species.
c.
if all birds on the different islands were finches.
d.
why all tortoises on the different islands were identical.
 

8. 

Which is a major concept included in Lamarck's theory of evolution?
a.
Change is the result of mutations.
b.
Body structure can change according to the needs of the organism.
c.
Selection pressures decrease the rate of evolution.
d.
Sexual reproduction is the genetic basis for variations.
 

9. 

Darwin called the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment
a.
diversity.
b.
fitness.
c.
adaptation.
d.
evolution.
 

10. 

What is evolution?
a.
the increased reproductive success of the fittest individuals
b.
the diminished reproductive success of poorly adapted individuals
c.
the change in the inherited characteristics of a population
d.
the struggle for existence undergone by all living things
 

11. 

According to Darwin's theory of natural selection, the individuals that tend to survive are those that have
a.
characteristics their parents acquired by use and disuse.
b.
undergone mutations.
c.
the smallest number of offspring.
d.
variations best suited to the environment.
 

12. 

When Darwin returned from the voyage of the Beagle, he
a.
immediately publish his theory of evolution.
b.
realized his theory of evolution was wrong.
c.
waited many years to publish his theory of evolution.
d.
copied the evolutionary theory of Wallace.
 

13. 

Darwin formulated his theory of evolution by natural selection after
a.
experimentation with animals.
b.
observations of many species and their geographical distributions.
c.
reading the writings of Wallace.
d.
agreeing with Lamarck about the driving force behind evolution.
 

14. 

Darwin's concept of evolution was NOT influenced by
a.
the work of Lyell.
b.
the nature of DNA.
c.
his collection of specimens.
d.
his trip on the H.M.S. Beagle.
 

15. 

According to Darwin's theory of natural selection, individuals who survive are most likely the ones best adapted to exist in their environment. Their survival is due to the
a.
possession of structures developed through use.
b.
possession of adaptations that maximize fitness.
c.
lack of competition within the species.
d.
ability to change their genotype.
 
 
quiz_chapter_15_files/i0180000.jpg

Figure 15-2
 

16. 

The pelvis and femur of the whale shown in Figure 15-2
a.
allow the whale to walk.
b.
are vestigial structures.
c.
are acquired traits.
d.
are not inherited.
 

17. 

The belief that only famine, disease, and war could prevent the endless growth of human populations was presented by
a.
Darwin.
b.
Lamarck.
c.
Malthus.
d.
Lyell.
 

18. 

Common cells growing in similar patterns in different organisms produce
a.
homologous structures such as wings and arms.
b.
indistinguishable early embryos.
c.
vestigial organs such as reduced tails.
d.
different limb types specialized for a single function.
 

19. 

Lamarck proposed that organisms
a.
have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection.
b.
have an innate tendency toward simplicity and perfection.
c.
inherit all of the adaptations they display.
d.
are not affected by use and disuse of organs.
 

20. 

The theory that organisms evolve, or change, over time by natural selection was proposed by
a.
Hutton.
b.
Lamarck.
c.
Malthus.
d.
Darwin.
 

21. 

Which statement is in agreement with Darwin's theory of evolution?
a.
More offspring are produced than can possibly survive.
b.
The organisms that are the fittest are always largest.
c.
Number of offspring is not related to fitness.
d.
Acquired characteristics are inherited.
 

22. 

When lions prey on a herd of antelope, some antelope are eliminated. Which part of Darwin's theory of evolution may be used to describe this situation?
a.
acquired characteristics
b.
reproductive isolation
c.
survival of the fittest
d.
speciation due to mutations
 

23. 

During the voyage of the Beagle, many of Darwin's observations were made
a.
in England.
b.
in North America.
c.
on the Galápagos Islands.
d.
in Africa.
 

24. 

What did Darwin conclude upon reading the work of Hutton and Lyell?
a.
Earth is relatively young.
b.
Earth is very old.
c.
All geological change is caused by earthquakes.
d.
Natural forces—such as rain, heat, and cold—do not affect rock.
 

25. 

Hutton and Lyell's work suggested that
a.
Earth is millions of years old.
b.
Earth is several thousand years old.
c.
fossils are not the remains of living things.
d.
all rocks on Earth contain fossils.
 

26. 

In the Galápagos, Darwin was able to observe
a.
completely unrelated organisms on each of the islands.
b.
most of the species of animals found in South America.
c.
similar species in somewhat different habitats.
d.
species unrelated to those found in South America.
 

27. 

The species of finches that Darwin found on the Galápagos Islands displayed different structural adaptations. One of the adaptations that Darwin noted was the
a.
similarities of the birds' embryos.
b.
birds' differently shaped beaks.
c.
length of the birds' necks.
d.
number of eggs in each bird's nest.
 

28. 

Galápagos birds that Darwin thought were wrens, warblers, and blackbirds really were all
a.
wrens.
b.
finches.
c.
mockingbirds.
d.
blackbirds.
 

29. 

Darwin's theory of evolution is based on
a.
natural variation and natural selection.
b.
use and disuse.
c.
a tendency toward perfect organisms.
d.
transmission of acquired characteristics.
 

30. 

Hutton and Lyell's work was important to Darwin because it
a.
was the first to attempt to explain catastrophic events such as earthquakes.
b.
completely explained the nature of all geologic events on Earth.
c.
suggested that Earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred.
d.
refuted the work of Wallace, which relied on misunderstandings about geology.
 



 
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